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高中化学反应方程式大全

  )1、氧化性:F2+H2===2HF (晦暗处爆炸)F2+Xe(过量)==XeF22F2(过量)+Xe==XeF4 (XeF4是强氧化剂,能将Mn2+氧化为MnO4–)nF2+2M===2MFn(M示意大个别金属)2F2+2H2O===4HF+O2 (水是还原剂)2F2+2NaOH===2NaF+OF2+H2OF2+2NaCl===2NaF+Cl2F2+2NaBr===2NaF+Br2F2+2NaI===2NaF+I27F2(过量)+I2===2IF7F2+Cl2(等体积)===2ClF (ClF属于类卤素:ClF+H2O==HF+HClO )3F2(过量)+Cl2===2ClF3 (ClF3+3H2O==3HF+HClO3 )Cl2+H2 2HCl (将H2正在Cl2点燃;同化点燃、加热、光照爆发爆炸)3Cl2+2P 2PCl3 Cl2+PCl3 PCl5 Cl2+2Na 2NaCl3Cl2+2Fe 2FeCl3 Cl2+Cu CuCl2Cl2+2FeCl2===2FeCl3 (正在水溶液中:Cl2+2Fe2+===2Fe3++3Cl )Cl2+2NaBr===2NaCl+Br2 Cl2+2Br =2Cl +Br2Cl2+2KI===2KCl+I2 Cl2+2I =2Cl +I23Cl2(过量)+2KI+3H2O===6HCl+KIO33Cl2+I–+3H2O=6H++6Cl–+IO3–5Cl2+I2+6H2O===2HIO3+10HCl5Cl2+I2+6H2O=10Cl–+IO3–+12H+Cl2+Na2S===2NaCl+S↓ Cl2+S2–=2Cl–+S↓Cl2+H2S===2HCl+S↓ (水溶液中:Cl2+H2S=2H++2Cl–+S↓Cl2+SO2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HClCl2+SO2+2H2O=4H++SO42–+2Cl–Cl2+H2O2===2HCl+O2 Cl2+H2O2=2H++Cl–+O22O2+3Fe Fe3O4 O2+K===KO2S+H2 H2S 2S+C CS2 S+Zn ZnSS+Fe FeS (既能由单质造取,又能由离子造取)S+2Cu Cu2S (只可由单质造取,不行由离子造取)3S+2Al Al2S3 (只可由单质造取,不行由离子造取)N2+3H2 2NH3 N2+3Mg Mg3N2 N2+3Ca Ca3N2N2+3Ba Ba3N2 N2+6Na 2Na3N N2+6K 2K3NN2+6Rb 2Rb3N N2+2Al 2AlNP4+6H2 4PH3 P+3Na Na3P 2P+3Zn Zn3P2H2+2Li 2LiH2、还原性S+O2 SO2 S+H2SO4(浓) 3SO2↑+2H2OS+6HNO3(浓) H2SO4+6NO2↑+2H2OS+4H++6==6NO2↑+2H2O+3S+4HNO3(稀) 3SO2+4NO↑+2H2O3S+4H++4 3SO2+4NO↑+2H2ON2+O2 2NO4P+5O2 P4O10(常写成P2O5)2P+3X2 2PX3(X示意F2,Cl2,Br2) PX3+X2 PX5P4+20HNO3(浓) 4H3PO4+20NO2↑+4H2OC+2F2 CF4 C+2Cl2 CCl4C+O2(足量) CO2 2C+O2(少量) 2COC+CO2 2CO C+H2O CO+H2(天生水煤气)2C+SiO2 Si+2CO(造得粗硅)Si(粗)+2Cl2 SiCl4 (SiCl4+2H2===Si(纯)+4HCl)Si(粉)+O2 SiO2 Si+C SiC(金刚砂)Si+2NaOH+H2O==Na2SiO3+2H2↑ (Si+2OH +H2O= +2H2↑)3、歧化响应Cl2+H2O==HCl+HClO(加碱或光照鼓动歧化: (Cl2+H2O H++Cl–+HClO)Cl2+2NaOH==NaCl+NaClO+H2O (Cl2+2OH–=Cl–+ClO–+H2O)Cl2+2Ca(OH)2==CaCl2+Ca(ClO)2+2H2O (Cl2+2OH–=Cl–+ClO–+H2O)3Cl2+6KOH(浓) 5KCl+KClO3+3H2O (3Cl2+6OH– 5Cl–+ClO3–+3H2O)3S+6NaOH 2Na2S+Na2SO3+3H2O (3S+6OH– 2S2–+SO32–+3H2O)4P+3KOH(浓)+3H2O==PH3↑+3KH2PO2 (4P+3OH–+3H2O==PH3↑+3H2PO2–)11P+15CuSO4+24H2O==5Cu3P+6H3PO4+15H2SO43C+CaO CaC2+CO↑3C+SiO2 SiC+2CO↑二.金属单质(Na,Mg,Al,Fe,Cu)的还原性2Na+H2 2NaH 4Na+O2==2Na2O 2Na2O+O2 2Na2O22Na+O2 Na2O2 2Na+S==Na2S(爆炸)2Na+2H2O==2NaOH+H2↑ 2Na+2H2O=2Na++2OH―+H2↑2Na+2NH3==2NaNH2+H2↑ 2Na+2NH3=2Na++2NH2―+H2↑4Na+TiCl4 4NaCl+Ti Mg+Cl2 MgCl2 Mg+Br2 MgBr22Mg+O2 2MgO Mg+S MgS2Cu+S Cu2S (Cu2S只可由单质造备)Mg+2H2O Mg(OH)2+H2↑2Mg+TiCl4 Ti+2MgCl2 Mg+2RbCl MgCl2+2Rb2Mg+CO2 2MgO+C 2Mg+SiO2 2MgO+SiMg+H2S==MgS+H2Mg+H2SO4==MgSO4+H2↑ (Mg+2H+=Mg2++H2↑)2Al+3Cl2 2AlCl34Al+3O2===2Al2O3 (常温天生致密氧化膜而钝化,正在氧气中燃烧)4Al(Hg)+3O2+2xH2O===2(Al2O3.xH2O)+4Hg(铝汞齐)4Al+3MnO2 2Al2O3+3Mn 2Al+Cr2O3 Al2O3+2Cr (铝热响应)2Al+Fe2O3 Al2O3+2Fe 2Al+3FeO Al2O3+3Fe2Al+6HCl===2AlCl3+3H2↑ 2Al+6H+=2Al3++3H2↑2Al+3H2SO4===Al2(SO4)3+3H2↑ 2Al+6H+=2Al3++3H2↑2Al+6H2SO4(浓)===Al2(SO4)3+3SO2+6H2O (Al,Fe正在冷,★-●△▪️▲□△▽浓的H2SO4,HNO3中钝化)Al+4HNO3(稀)===Al(NO3)3+NO↑+2H2O Al+4H++NO3–=Al3++NO↑+2H2O2Al+2NaOH+2H2O===2NaAlO2+3H2↑ 2Al+2OH–+2H2O=2AlO2–+3H2↑2Fe+3Br2===2FeBr3 3Fe+2O2 Fe3O4 2Fe+O2 2FeO (炼钢进程)Fe+I2 FeI2Fe+S FeS (FeS既能由单质造备,又能由离子造备)3Fe+4H2O(g) Fe3O4+4H2↑Fe+2HCl===FeCl2+H2↑ Fe+2H+=Fe2++H2↑Fe+CuCl2===FeCl2+Cu Fe+Cu2+=Fe2++Cu↓Fe+SnCl4===FeCl2+SnCl2(铁正在酸性境遇下,不行把四氯化锡全体还原为单质锡Fe+SnCl2==FeCl2+Sn↓ Fe+Sn2+=Fe2++Sn↓三.非金属氢化物(HF,HCl,H2O,H2S,NH3)金属氢化物(NaH)1、还原性:4HCl(浓)+MnO2 MnCl2+Cl2↑+2H2O4H++2Cl–+MnO2 Mn2++Cl2↑+2H2O4HCl(浓)+PbO2 PbCl2+Cl2↑+2H2O4H++2Cl–+PbO2 Pb2++Cl2↑+2H2O4HCl(g)+O2 2Cl2+2H2O16HCl+2KMnO4===2KCl+2MnCl2+5Cl2↑+8H2O16 H++10Cl-+2MnO4–=2Mn2++5Cl2↑+8H2O6HCl+KClO3==KCl+3Cl2↑+3H2O6H++5Cl–+ClO3–=3Cl2↑+3H2O14HCl+K2Cr2O7===2KCl+2CrCl3+3Cl2↑+7H2O14H++6Cl–+Cr2O72–=2Cr3++5Cl2↑+7H2O2H2O+2F2===4HF+O22HCl+F2=2HF+Cl2 (F2气与HCl、▲●…△HBr、HI、H2S、NH3气体不行共存)2HBr+Cl2=2HCl+Br2 (Cl2气与HBr、●HI、H2S、NH3气体不行共存)2H2S+3O2(足量) 2SO2+2H2O 2H2S+O2(少量) 2S↓+2H2O2H2S+SO2===3S↓+2H2O H2S+H2SO4(浓)===S↓+SO2↑+2H2O3H2S+2HNO3(稀)===3S↓+2NO↑+4H2O3H2S+2H++2NO3–=3S↓+2NO↑+4H2O5H2S+2KMnO4+3H2SO4===2MnSO4+K2SO4+5S↓+8H2O5H2S+2MnO4–+6H+=2Mn2++5S↓+8H2O3H2S+K2Cr2O7+4H2SO4===Cr2(SO4)3+K2SO4+3S↓+7H2O3H2S+Cr2O72–+8H+===2Cr3++3S↓+7H2OH2S+4Na2O2+2H2O===Na2SO4+6NaOHH2S+4Na2O2+2H2O=8Na++ +2NH3+3CuO 3Cu+N2+3H2O2NH3+3Cl2===N2+6HCl 8NH3+3Cl2===N2+6NH4ClNH3+NaNO2+HCl==NaCl+N2↑+2H2ONH3+NO2–+H+=N2↑+2H2O4NH3+3O2(纯氧) 2N2+6H2O 4NH3+5O2 4NO+6H2O4NH3+6NO===5N2+6H2O (用氨拂拭NO)NaH+H2O===NaOH+H2↑ (生氢剂)NaH+H2O=Na++OH–+H2↑4NaH+TiCl4 Ti+4NaCl+2H2↑ CaH2+2H2O=Ca(OH)2↓+2H2↑2、酸性:4HF+SiO2===SiF4+2H2O(可测定矿样或钢样中SiO2的含量,玻璃琢磨)4HF+Si===SiF4+2H2↑2HF+CaCl2===CaF2+2HCl H2S+Fe===FeS↓+H2↑H2S+CuCl2===CuS↓+2HCl (弱酸造强酸的榜样响应)H2S+Cu2+=CuS↓+2H+H2S+2AgNO3===Ag2S↓+2HNO3H2S+2Ag+=Ag2S↓+2H+H2S+HgCl2===HgS↓+2HClH2S+Hg2+=HgS↓+2H+H2S+Pb(NO3)2===PbS↓+2HNO3 (铅试纸考验气氛中H2S)H2S+Pb2+=PbS↓+2H+H2S+2Ag===Ag2S+H2↑(银器正在气氛中变黑的起因)2NH3(液)+2Na==2NaNH2+H2↑ (NaNH2+H2O===NaOH+NH3↑)3、NH3的碱性:NH3+HX===NH4X (X:F、Cl、◆◁•Br、I、S)NH3+HNO3===NH4NO3 NH3+H+=NH4+2NH3+H2SO4===(NH4)2SO4 NH3+H+=NH4+NH3+NaCl+H2O+CO2===NaHCO3+NH4Cl(侯德榜造碱:用于工业造备幼苏打,苏打)NH3+H2S==NH4HS NH3+H2S=NH4++HS-4、不服稳性:2HF H2+F2 2HCl H2+Cl2 2H2O 2H2+O22H2O2===2H2O+O2 H2S H2+S 2NH3 N2+3H22HI H2+I2四.非金属氧化物(SO3、SO2、N2O、NO、N2O3、NO2、N2O4、N2O5、CO、CO2、SiO2、P2O3、P2O5、▪️•★Cl2O、Cl2O3、Cl2O5、Cl2O7、ClO2)1、低价态的还原性:(SO2、CO、NO)2SO2+O2+2H2O===2H2SO4(这是SO2正在大气中迟钝爆发的境遇化学响应)2SO2+O2 2SO3 SO2+NO2===SO3+NOSO2+Cl2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HCl Cl2+SO2+2H2O=4H++SO42–+2Cl–SO2+Br2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HBr Br2+SO2+2H2O=4H++SO42–+2Br–SO2+I2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HI I2+SO2+2H2O=4H++SO42–+2I–2NO+O2===2NO2NO+NO2+2NaOH===2NaNO2(用于造硝酸工业中接扫尾气中的NO和NO2)NO+NO2+2OH–=2NO2–2CO+O2 2CO2 CO+CuO Cu+CO23CO+Fe2O3 2Fe+3CO2 CO+H2O CO2+H22、▲●氧化性:SO2+2H2S===3S+2H2OSO3+2KI K2SO3+I2NO2+2KI+H2O===NO+I2+2KOH(不行用淀粉KI溶液甄别溴蒸气和NO2)4NO2+H2S===4NO+SO3+H2O2NO2+Cu 4CuO+N2 N2O+Zn ZnO+N2CO2+2Mg 2MgO+C (CO2不行用于歼灭由Mg,Ca,Ba,•☆■▲Na,K等燃烧的失火)SiO2+2H2 Si+2H2O SiO2+2Mg 2MgO+Si3、与水的效用:SO2+H2O===H2SO3SO3+H2O===H2SO4 SO3+H2O=2H++SO42–3NO2+H2O===2HNO3+NO (NO2不是硝酸的酸酐)N2O5+H2O===2HNO3 N2O5+H2O=2H++2NO3–P2O5+H2O(冷水)===2HPO3P2O5+3H2O(热水)===2H3PO4 (P2O5极易吸水,可作气体干燥剂)P2O5+3H2SO4(浓)===2H3PO4+3SO3CO2+H2O===H2CO3Cl2O+H2O==2HClOCl2O7+H2O==2HClO4 Cl2O7+H2O=2H++2ClO4–4、与碱性物质的效用:SO2+2NH3+H2O===(NH4)2SO3SO2+(NH4)2SO3+H2O===2NH4HSO32NH4HSO3+H2SO4===(NH4)2SO4+2H2O+2SO2↑(硫酸工业尾气管束)SO2+Ca(OH)2===CaSO3↓+H2O (不行用澄清石灰水甄别SO2和CO2.可用品红甄别)SO3+MgO===MgSO4SO3+Ca(OH)2===CaSO4↓+H2OCO2+NH3+H2O===NH4HCO3CO2+2NH3(过量)+H2O===(NH4)2CO3 (NH4)2CO3 (NH2)2CO+2H2OCO2+2NH3 (NH2)2CO+H2O (工业造取尿素)CO2+2NaOH(过量)==Na2CO3+H2O 2OH-+CO2=CO32–+H2OCO2(过量)+NaOH==NaHCO3 OH-+CO2=HCO3–CO2+Ca(OH)2(过量)==CaCO3+H2O Ca2++2 +CO2=CaCO3↓+H2O2CO2(过量)+Ca(OH)2==Ca(HCO3)2 OH―+CO2=HCO3–CO2+CaCO3+H2O==Ca(HCO3)2 CO2+CaCO3+H2O=Ca2++2HCO3–CO2(缺乏)+2NaAlO2+3H2O===2Al(OH)3↓+Na2CO3CO2+3H2O+AlO2–=Al(OH)3↓+CO32–CO2(足)+NaAlO2+2H2O===Al(OH)3↓+NaHCO3CO2+2H2O+AlO2–=Al(OH)3↓+HCO3–CO2+C6H5ONa+H2O===C6H5OH↓+NaHCO3CO2+C6H5O―+H2O=C6H5OH↓+HCO3–SiO2+CaO CaSiO3 (炼钢造渣)SiO2+2NaOH===Na2SiO3+H2O(常温下强碱迟钝腐化玻璃)SiO2+Na2CO3 Na2SiO3+CO2 (造取玻璃)SiO2+CaCO3 CaSiO3+CO2 (造取玻璃)2NO2+2NaOH==NaNO2+NaNO3+H2O2NO2+2OH―=NO3–+NO2―+H2ONO+NO2+2NaOH==2NaNO2+H2O (造取硝酸工业尾气接收)NO+NO2+2OH―=2NO3–+H2O五.金属氧化物1、低价态的还原性:6FeO+O2===2Fe3O4FeO+4HNO3===Fe(NO3)3+NO2+2H2OFeO+4H++NO3―=Fe3++NO2↑+2H2O2、氧化性:Na2O2+2Na 2Na2O(此反运用于造备Na2O)MgO,Al2O3险些没有氧化性,■□很难被还原为Mg,Al.日常通过电解造Mg和Al.Fe2O3+3H2 2Fe+3H2O(造还原铁粉)Fe3O4+4H2 3Fe+4H2O CuO+H2 Cu+H2O2Fe3O4+16HI==6FeI2+8H2O+2I22Fe3O4+16H++4I―=6Fe2++8H2O+2I2Fe2O3+Fe 3FeO (炼钢进程中到场废钢作氧化剂)FeO+C Fe+CO (高温炼钢安排C含量)2FeO+Si 2Fe+SiO2 (高温炼钢安排Si含量)3、与水的效用:Na2O+H2O==2NaOHNa2O+H2O=2Na++2OH–2Na2O2+2H2O===4NaOH+O2↑2Na2O2+2H2O=4Na++4OH–+O2↑(此响应分两步:Na2O2+2H2O===2NaOH+H2O2;2H2O2===2H2O+O2 H2O2的造备可诈骗相同的响应:BaO2+H2SO4(稀)===BaSO4+H2O2)MgO+H2O===Mg(OH)2(迟钝响应)4、与酸性物质的效用:Na2O+SO3==Na2SO4 Na2O+CO2==Na2CO3 MgO+SO3===MgSO4Na2O+2HCl==2NaCl+H2ONa2O+2H+=2Na++H2O2Na2O2+2CO2==2Na2CO3+O2↑Na2O2+H2SO4(冷,稀)===Na2SO4+H2O2MgO+H2SO4===MgSO4+H2OMgO+2H+=Mg2++H2OAl2O3+3H2SO4===Al2(SO4)3+3H2OAl2O3+6H+=2Al3++3H2OAl2O3+2NaOH===2NaAlO2+H2O (Al2O3两性氧化物)Al2O3+2OH―=2AlO2―+H2OFeO+2HCl===FeCl2+H2OFeO+2H+=Fe2++H2OFe2O3+6HCl===2FeCl3+3H2OFe2O3+6H+=2Fe3++3H2OFe3O4+8HCl===FeCl2+2FeCl3+4H2OFe3O4+8H+=2Fe3++Fe2++4H2O

  高中化学响应方程式大万能标出有色彩(考查常考)的物质或离子的色彩,标出响应进程中(考查常考)的响应地步,将一个元素的一起响应方程式席卷离子方程式概括到一块,做的好的话可格表加分,感谢!

  高中化学响应方程式大万能标出有色彩(考查常考)的物质或离子的色彩,标出响应进程中(考查常考)的响应地步,将一个元素的一起响应方程式席卷离子方程式概括到一块,◆●△▼●做的好的话可额...

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